30 டிசம்பர் 2011

PAPER SIZES IN INDIA & WORLD

      அன்பு நண்பர்களே,வணக்கம். 
    இந்தப்பதிவில் இந்தியா நாட்டில் புழக்கதில் உள்ள பேப்பர் அளவுகள் பற்றி உங்களது கவனத்திற்காகப் பதிவிடுகிறேன். அறிந்து கொள்ளுங்கள்.மற்றவர்களுக்கும் கூறுங்கள்.தவிர்க்க இயலாத காரணத்தால் தெளிவாகப் பதிவிட இயலவில்லை.பிறகு  நமது இந்தியாவின் புழக்கத்திற்கேற்ற பேப்பர் அளவுகளை,பயன்களை, சேகரித்துப் பதிவிடுகிறேன்.அது பற்றிய விபரங்கள் தெரிந்தவர்களும் இங்கு கருத்துரையில் தகவல் கொடுத்தால் நல்லது.


            A4-இந்த அளவுள்ள பேப்பர்தான் அதிகப்புழக்கதில் உள்ளன.


 

         தாள் அளவு

     ஆவணங்களுக்கும், வேறு தேவைகளுக்கும் பயன்படக்கூடிய தாள் அளவுகள், தொடர்பான சீர்தரங்கள்,நாட்டுக்கு நாடும், காலத்துக்குக் காலமும் வேறுபாடாக இருந்து வந்துள்ளன. ஆனால் இன்று, முக்கியமாக இரண்டு வகையான சீர்தரங்களே அனைத்துலக அளவில் பயன்பாட்டில் உள்ளன. ஒன்று, அனைத்துலக சீர்தர நிறுவனங்களின் அளவுகள், மற்றது வட அமெரிக்கா அளவுகள்.

     அனைத்துலக சீர்தரம்: 

            ஐஎஸ்ஓ 216

            ஐஎஸ்ஓ A அளவுகள்.
               அனைத்துலகத் தாள் அளவு சீர்தரமான, ISO-216 என்பது மீட்டர் அளவை முறையில் அமைந்தது. இந்த முறையானது , ஒரு சதுரமீட்டர் பரப்பளவையும், 1 : 1.4142 என்ற அளவு விகிதத்தையும் கொண்ட தாளை அடிப்படை அளவாகக் கொண்டது. இந்த அடிப்படையான தாள் அளவு A0 எனப்படுகின்றது. இந்த A வரிசைத் தாள் அளவு முறையில் A0 என்பதே மிகப் பெரிய அளவாகும். A0 அளவினை குறுக்காக மடித்தால் A1 அளவாகும். A1 அளவினை குறுக்காக மடித்தால் A2 அளவாகும்.இவ்வாறாக ஒவ்வொன்றையும் குறுக்காக மடித்து,மடித்து குறைந்து செல்லும் அளவுகளுக்கு A1, A2, A3, A4, ..... எனப் பெயரிடப்பட்டுள்ளன. இவற்றில் அதிகமாக, மிகப் பரவலாகப் பயன்படும் தாள் அளவு A4 (210 x 297 மிமீ) ஆகும்.
ISO தாள் அளவுகள் 1 : 2 இன் வர்க்கமூலம் ( Ratio = 1 : 1.4142 ) என்னும் விகிதத்தை அடிப்படையாகக் கொண்டவை. 1768-ஆம் ஆண்டில் ஜெர்மானிய நாட்டு அறிவியல் அறிஞர் இந்த விகிதத்தின் நன்மைகள் குறித்து, 1768 ஆம் ஆண்டிலேயே, Georg Lichtenberg என்பவர் குறிப்பிட்டிருந்தார்.இருபதாம் ஆரம்பத்தில் Doctor,Walter Porstmann என்பவர் Georg Lichtenberg –ன் குறிப்புகளை பல்வேறு தாள் அளவுகளாக உருவாக்கினார்.
இச் சீர்தர அளவுகள் மிக விரைவாக மற்ற நாடுகளுக்கும் பரவியது..


1977 ஆம் ஆண்டளவில், 148 நாடுகளில் 88 நாடுகளில் A4 அளவே கடிதங்களுக்குப் பயன்பட்டது. இன்று அமெரிக்கா, கனடா இரு நாடுகள் மட்டும் இந்த முறையைப்பயன்படுத்தவில்லை
ஐஎஸ்ஓ/டிஐஎன் தாள் அளவுகள்.
 மில்லிமீட்டரிலும், அங்குலத்திலும்,
இங்கு காண்க.



















A SERIES
mm X mm
Inch X Inch
B SERIES
mm X mm
Inch X Inch
A0
841 X 1189
33.11 X 46.81
B0
1000 X 1414
39.37 X 55.67
A1
594 X 841
23.39 X 33.11
B1
707 X 1000
27.83X 39.37
A2
420 X 594
16.54 X 23.39
B2
500 X 707
19.68 X 27.83
A3
297 X 420
11.69 X 16.54
B3
353 X 500
13.90 X 19.68
A4
210 X 297
8.27 X 11.69
B4
250 X 353
9.84 X 13.90
A5
148 X 210
5.83 X 8.27
B5
176 X 250
6.93 X 9.84
A6
105 X 148
4.13 X 5.83
B6
125 X 176
4.92 X 6.93
A7
74 X 105
2.91 X 4.13
B7
88 X 125
3.46 X 4.92
A8
52 X 74
2.05 X 2.91
B8
62 X 88
2.44 X 3.46
A9
37 X 52
1.46 X 2.05
B9
44 X 62
1.73 X 2.44
A10
26 X 37
1.02 X 1.46
B10
31 X 44
1.22 X 1.73











 
C SERIES
mm X mm
Inch X Inch
Japanese B Series
mm X mm
Inch X Inch
C0
917X1297
36.10X51.06
B0
1030 x 1456
40.55x57.32
C1
648X917
25.53X36.10
B1
728 x 1030
28.66x40.55
C2
458X648
18.05X25.53
B2
515x728
20.27x28.66
C3
324X458
12.76X18.05
B3
364x515
14.33x20.27
C4
229X324
9.02X12.76
B4
257x364
10.13x14.33
C5
162X229
6.38X9.02
B5
182x257
7.16x10.13
C6
114X162
4.51X6.38
B6
128x182
5.06x7.16
C7
81X114
3.19X4.51
B7
91x128
3.58x5.06
C8
57X81
2.25X3.19
B8
64x91
2.53x3.58
C9
40X57
1.59X2.25
B9
45x64
1.79x2.53
C10
28X40
1.12X1.59
B10
32x45
1.26x1.79

        

        (+) ISO D paper sizes




Millimeters
Inches
Points

Height
Width
Height
Width
Height
Width
D0
771
1090
30.35
42.91
2186
3090

 

       
A0 & A1
Technical drawings, posters
A1 & A2
Flip charts
A2 & A3
Drawings, diagrams, large tables
A4
Letters, magazines, forms, catalogs, laser printer and copying machine output
A5
Note pads
 A6
Postcards
B5, A5, B6  A6
Books
C4, C5, C6
Envelopes for A4 letters: unfolded (C4), folded once (C5), folded twice (C6)
B4 & A3
Newspapers, supported by most copying machines in addition to A4
B8 & A8
Playing cards
US Engineering
mm X mm
Inch X Inch
US Architecture
mm X mm
Inch X Inch
ANSI A
215.9X279.4
8.5X11
ARCH A
228.6X304.8
9X12
ANSI B
279.4X431.8
11X17
ARCH B
304.8X457.2
12X18
ANSI C
431.8X558.8
17X22
ARCH C
457.2X509.6
18X24
ANSI D
588.8X863,6
22X34
ARCH D
609.6X914.4
24X36
ANSI E
863.6X1117.6
34X44
ARCH E
914.4X1219.2
36X48
  

 
US Misc.
mm X mm
Inch X Inch
US Misc.
mm X mm
Inch X Inch
Letter
215.9X279.4
8.5X11
Folio
215.9X330.2
8.5X13
Legal
215.9X355.6
8.5X14
Quarto
215X275
8.46X10.8
US Govt
203.2X279.4
8X11
Tabloid
279.4X431.8
11X17
Statement
139.7X215.9
5.5X8.5
Ledger
279.4X431.8
11X17
Executive
184.2X266.7
7.25X10.5
Foolscap
342.9X431.8
13.5X17



       



JB SERIES
mm X mm
Inch X Inch
JB SERIES
mm X mm
Inch X Inch
JB0
1030X1456
40.55X57.32
JB6
128X182
5.06X7.17
JB1
728X1030
28.66X40.55
JB7
91X128
3.59X5.06
JB2
515X728
20.27X28.66
JB8
64X91
2.53X3.59
JB3
364X515
14.33X20.27
JB9
45X64
1.8X2.53
JB4
257X364
10.13X14.33
JB10
32X45
1.27X1.8
JB5
182X257
7.17X10.13





 
RA SERIES
mm X mm
Inch X Inch
SRA SERIES
mm X mm
Inch X Inch
RA0
860X1220
33.86X48.03
SRA0
900X1280
35.43 X 50.39
RA1
610X860
24.01X33.86
SRA1
640X900
25.19X35.43
RA2
430X610
16.93X24.01
SRA2
450X640
17.71X25.19
RA3
305X430
12.00X16.93
SRA3
320X450
12.59X17.71
RA4
215X305
8.46X12.00
SRA4
225X320
8.85X12.59





                        கவனியுங்கள்.  

       Part of the ISO 216 standard


       A4 is part of a set or range of page sizes, called the ISO A or ISO 216 standard. This international standard is based on the German DIN 476 standard from 1922. A4 is actually often referred to as DIN A4. The Japanese have adopted the same range of paper sizes in their JIS P 0138-61 standard.
By folding an A4 in two along its shortest side, you create an A5 document. Two A4 pages next to each other in a spread equals the A3 paper size. This way a range of paper sizes is created from A0 (which has a surface of one square meter) to A10. The height/width ratio remains constant for all sizes: 1:1.41 or the square root of 2. The dimensions always get rounded to the nearest millimeter.

      அன்பர்களே,வணக்கம். 
            இதற்குக்கீழ் தங்களுக்கு பொறுமை இருந்தால் மட்டுமே மேற்கொண்டு படியுங்கள்.நன்றிங்க!

                          (1)  Paper sizes

This list of the common American and European paper sizes includes the ISO standards, which are used globally. All dimensions are specified in inches, millimeters as well as PostScript points (1/72 inch, always rounded off).

This overview covers:

  • ISO page sizes – The ISO A series is the most frequently used page measurement standard. It includes the DIN A4 format. The ISO B sizes are used for poster printing while ISO C is meant for envelopes. The SRA standard defines press sheet sizes and is used in the printing industry.
  • American paper size dimensions – such as ‘Letter’, ‘Legal’ and the ANSI series.
  • English sheet sizes – with a focus on formats for writing paper and book printing.

                (2) ISO A paper sizes


The A-series consists of a logical set of paper sizes that are defined by the ISO 216 standard. The largest size (A0) measures one square meter. The height/width ratio remains constant (1:1.41) for all sizes. This means you get the A1 size by folding an A0 paper in two along its shortest side. Then fold the A1 size in two to get an A2 size paper, and so on… A-sizes are used to define the finished paper size in commercial printing: A4 is for office documents, A5 is for notepads and A6 is for postcards.









                       (3)ISO B paper sizes


The same logic from the A-sizes also applies for the B-series, except here the starting point was the dimension of one of the sides, which starts at 1 meter. B-sizes are often used for posters.


Millimeters
Inches
Points

Height
Width
Height
Width
Height
Width
B0
1414
1000
55.67
39.37
4008
2835
B1
1000
707
39.37
27.83
2835
2004
B2
707
500
27.83
19.69.
2004
1417
B3
500
353
19.69
13.90
1417
1001
B4
353
250
13.90
9.84
1001
709
B5
250
176
9.84
6.93
709
499
B6
176
125
6.93
4.92
499
354
B7
125
88
4.92
3.46
354
249
B8
88
62
3.46
2.44
249
176
B9
62
44
2.44
1.73
176
125
B10
44
31
1.73
1.22
125
88

                     (4) ISO C paper sizes


C-sizes are used for envelopes to match the A-series paper. I have omitted unrealistic sizes like C0 (imagine an envelope measuring 917 by 1297 millimetres).


Millimeters
Inches
Points

Height
Width
Height
Width
Height
Width
C2
458
648
18.03
25.51
578
1837
C3
324
458
12.76
18.03
919
578
C4
229
324
9.02
12.76
649
919
C5
162
229
6.38
9.02
459
649
C6
114
162
4.49
6.38
323
459




















                               (5)ISO RA & SRA paper sizes



                       These oversized papersizes are used by printers. The dimensions in millimetres are rounded to the nearest value.


Millimeters
Inches
Points

Height
Width
Height
Width
Height
Width
SRA0
900
1280
35.43
50.39
2551
3628
SRA1
640
900
25.20
35.43
1814
2551
SRA2
450
640
17.72
25.20
1276
1814
SRA3
320
450
12.59?
17.72
907?
1276
SRA4
225
320
8.86?
12.59?
638?
907?
RA0
860
1220
33.86
48.03
2438
3458
RA1
610
860
24.02
33.86
1729
2438
RA2
430
610
16.93
24.02
1219
1729

                (6)  American paper sizes


The US and Canada do not use the international standards but instead rely on the paper sizes below. The ANSI standard was added in 1995 to create a set of sizes that are based on shared dimensions. It lacks however the consistent aspect ratio of the ISO A-series.


Millimeters
Inches
Points

Height
Width
Height
Width
Height
Width
Letter (ANSI A)
279.4
215.9
11.00
8.50
792
612
Legal
355.6
215.9
14.00
8.50
1008
612
Ledger (ANSI B)
431.8
279.4
17.00
11.00
1224
792
Tabloid (ANSI B)
279.4
431.8
11.00
17.00
792
1224
Executive
266.7
184.1
10.55
7.25
756
522
ANSI C
432
559
17.00
22.00
1224
1584
ANSI D
559
864
22
34
1584
2448
ANSI E
864
1118
34.00
44.00
2448
3168

           (7)English paper sizes (writing papers)


The English nowadays use the A-sizes for office and general use. I have no idea whether many of these definitions are still in use today. Imperial and half-imperial still seem to be widely used by artists.


Millimeters
Inches
Points

Height
Width
Height
Width
Height
Width
Foolscap
419
336
16.50
13.25
1188
954
Small Post
469
368
18.50
14.50
1332
1044
Sheet and 1/3 cap
588
336
22.00
13.25
1584
954
Sheet and 1/2 cap
628
336
24.75
13.25
1782
954
Demy
507
394
20.00
15.50
1440
1116
Large Post
533
419
21.00
16.50
1512
1188
Small medium
558
444
22.00
17.50
1584
1260
Medium
584
457
23.00
18.00
1656
1296
Small Royal
609
482
24.00
19.00
1728
1368
Royal
634
507
25.00
20.00
1800
1440
Imperial
761
559
30.00
22.00
2160
1584

       (8) UK MATRIC BOOK PRINTING SIZES


       or books A-sizes often aren’t used because A4 is too large and A5 too small. Metric Royal Octavo and Metric Crown Quarto are 2 frequently used sizes that are more comfortable to hold and read.


Millimeters
Inches
Points

Height
Width
Height
Width
Height
Width
Metric Crown Quarto
246
189
9 11/16
7 7/16
697
536
Metric Crown Octavo
186
123
7 5/16
4 13/16
527
349
Metric Large Crown Quarto
258
201
10 3/16
7 7/8
731
570
Metric Large Crown Octavo
198
129
7 13/16
5 1/16
561
366
Metric Demy Quarto
276
219
10 7/8
8 5/8
782
621
Metric Demy Octavo
216
138
8 1/2
5 7/16
612
391
Metric Royal Quarto
312
237
12 1/4
9 5/16
884
672
Metric Royal Octavo
198
129
7 13/16
5 1/16
561
366
  


     (9)International standard paper sizes



                 Standard paper sizes like ISO A4 are widely used all over the world today. This text explains the ISO 216 paper size system and the ideas behind its design.

               The ISO paper size concept


                                  In the ISO paper size system, the height-to-width ratio of all pages is the square root of two (1.4142 : 1). In other words, the width and the height of a page relate to each other like the side and the diagonal of a square. This aspect ratio is especially convenient for a paper size. If you put two such pages next to each other, or equivalently cut one parallel to its shorter side into two equal pieces, then the resulting page will have again the same width/height ratio.
A diagram demonstrating the sqrt(2) width/height
ratio
               The ISO paper sizes are based on the metric system. The square-root-of-two ratio does not permit both the height and width of the pages to be nicely rounded metric lengths. Therefore, the area of the pages has been defined to have round metric values. As paper is usually specified in g/m², this simplifies calculation of the mass of a document if the format and number of pages are known.
         ISO 216 defines the A series of paper sizes based on these simple principles:
  • The height divided by the width of all formats is the square root of two (1.4142).
  • Format A0 has an area of one square meter.
  • Format A1 is A0 cut into two equal pieces. In other words, the height of A1 is the width of A0 and the width of A1 is half the height of A0.
  • All smaller A series formats are defined in the same way. If you cut format An parallel to its shorter side into two equal pieces of paper, these will have format A(n+1).
  • The standardized height and width of the paper formats is a rounded number of millimeters.

             For applications where the ISO A series does not provide an adequate format, the B series has been introduced to cover a wider range of paper sizes. The C series of formats has been defined for envelopes.
  • The width and height of a Bn format are the geometric mean between those of the An and the next larger A(n−1) format. For instance, B1 is the geometric mean between A1 and A0, that means the same magnification factor that scales A1 to B1 also scales B1 to A0.
  • Similarly, the formats of the C series are the geometric mean between the A and B series formats with the same number. For example, an (unfolded) A4 size letter fits nicely into a C4 envelope, which in turn fits as nicely into a B4 envelope. If you fold this letter once to A5 format, then it will fit nicely into a C5 envelope.
  • B and C formats naturally are also square-root-of-two formats.

                Note: The geometric mean of two numbers x and y is the square root of their product, (xy)1/2, whereas their arithmetic mean is half their sum, (x+y)/2. For example, the geometric mean of the numbers 2 and 8 is 4 (because 4/2 = 8/4), whereas their arithmetic mean is 5 (because 5−2 = 8−5). The arithmetic mean is half-way between two numbers by addition, whereas the geometric mean is half-way between two numbers by multiplication.
By the way: The Japanese JIS P 0138-61 standard defines the same A series as ISO 216, but a slightly different B series of paper sizes, sometimes called the JIS B or JB series. JIS B0 has an area of 1.5 m², such that the area of JIS B pages is the arithmetic mean of the area of the A series pages with the same and the next higher number, and not as in the ISO B series the geometric mean. For example, JB3 is 364 × 515, JB4 is 257 × 364, and JB5 is 182 × 257 mm. Using the JIS B series should be avoided. It introduces additional magnification factors and is not an international standard.
               The following table shows the width and height of all ISO A and B paper formats, as well as the ISO C envelope formats. The dimensions are in millimeters:

A Series FormatsB Series FormatsC Series Formats
4A01682 × 2378
2A01189 × 1682
A0 841 × 1189B01000 × 1414C0917 × 1297
A1 594 × 841 B1 707 × 1000C1648 × 917
A2 420 × 594 B2 500 × 707 C2458 × 648
A3 297 × 420 B3 353 × 500 C3324 × 458
A4210 × 297B4250 × 353C4229 × 324
A5 148 × 210 B5 176 × 250 C5162 × 229
A6 105 × 148 B6 125 × 176 C6114 × 162
A7 74 × 105 B7 88 × 125 C7 81 × 114
A8 52 × 74 B8 62 × 88 C8 57 × 81
A9 37 × 52 B9 44 × 62 C9 40 × 57
A10 26 × 37 B10 31 × 44 C1028 × 40

           The allowed tolerances are ±1.5 mm for dimensions up to 150 mm, ±2 mm for dimensions above 150 mm up to 600 mm, and ±3 mm for dimensions above 600 mm. Some national equivalents of ISO 216 specify tighter tolerances, for instance DIN 476 requires ±1 mm, ±1.5 mm, and ±2 mm respectively for the same ranges of dimensions.

           Application examples


The ISO standard paper size system covers a wide range of formats, but not all of them are widely used in practice. Among all formats, A4 is clearly the most important one for daily office use. Some main applications of the most popular formats can be summarized as:

A0, A1technical drawings, posters
A1, A2flip charts
A2, A3drawings, diagrams, large tables
A4letters, magazines, forms, catalogs, laser printer and copying machine output
A5note pads
A6postcards
B5, A5, B6, A6books
C4, C5, C6envelopes for A4 letters: unfolded (C4), folded once (C5), folded twice (C6)
B4, A3newspapers, supported by most copying machines in addition to A4
B8, A8playing cards

The main advantage of the ISO standard paper sizes becomes obvious for users of copying machines: 
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           கொங்குத் தென்றல் ,
             ஈரோடு மாவட்டம்.
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